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Msg : 549 of 2989 Scn

From : Leo V. Mironoff 2:5020/293 Sat 19 Aug 95 23:26

To : All Sun 20 Aug 95 22:34

Subj : HL-10


Hello All!

Картинка была, ждите анонса от моего оллфикса.

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HL-10 Lifting Body


The HL-10 was one of five lifting body designs flown at NASA's Dryden

Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, from July 1966 to Nov. 1975 to study

and validate the concept of safely maneuvering and landing a low

lift-over-drag vehicle designed for reentry from space. It is now on

permanent public display near the main entrance of Dryden.

The other designs were the M2-F2, M2-F3 (rebuilt M2-F2 following a landing

accident), X-24A, and X-24B (rebuilt X-24A with a different aerodynamic


Wingless lifting bodies attained aerodynamic stability and lift from the

shape of the vehicle. Lift resulted from more air pressure on the bottom of

the body than on the top. They used energy and aerodynamic lift for

in-flight maneuvering and a powerless, glider-like landing.


The original idea of lifting bodies was conceived in 1957 by Dr. Alfred J.

Eggers Jr., then the assistant director for Research and Development

Analysis and Planning at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA.

The lifting body concept was originally tested at Dryden with a plywood

prototype designated the M2-F1 and built in late 1962. It featured a

plywood shell built by Gus Briegleb, a sailplane builder from Mirage Dry

Lake, CA, placed over a tubular frame built at Dryden. The M2-F1 was towed

aloft, first behind an auto and then a C-47 more than 100 times, to

validate basic lifting body stability and control characteristics. This led

to establishment of the formal program which resulted in the HL-10 and its

sister vehicles.

Northrop Corporation built the HL-10. The contract for construction of the

HL-10 and the M2-F2, first of the fleet of lifting bodies flown at Dryden

and also built by Northrop, was $1.8 million. "HL" stands for horizontal

landing, and "10" refers to the tenth design studied by engineers at NASA's

Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA.

The HL-10 was delivered to NASA in Jan. 1966. During the next ten months it

was instrumented for the research program and prepared for flight. The

HL-10 and the M2-F2 were tested in wind tunnels at Ames Research Center

before research flights began.

The first flight of the HL-10 was on Dec. 22, 1966, with research pilot

Bruce Peterson in the cockpit. Although an XLR-11 rocket engine was

installed in the vehicle, the first 11 drop flights from the B-52 launch

aircraft were powerless glide flights to assess handling qualities,

stability, and control.

The HL-10 was flown 37 times during the lifting body research program and

logged the highest altitude and fastest speed in the program. On Feb. 18,

1970, Air Force test pilot Peter Hoag piloted the HL-10 to Mach 1.86 (1,228

mph). Nine days later, NASA pilot Bill Dana flew the vehicle to 90,030 ft,

which became the highest altitude reached in the program.

Typical Flight Profile

During a typical lifting body flight, the B-52 -- with the research vehicle

attached to the pylon mount on the right wing between the fuselage and

inboard engine pod -- flew to a height of approximately 45,000 ft and a

launch speed of about 450 mph.

Moments after being dropped, the XLR-11 rocket engine (same type engine

used in the Bell X-l) was ignited by the pilot and speed and altitude

increased until the engine was shut down by choice or fuel exhaustion,

depending upon the individual mission profile. The lifting bodies normally

carried enough fuel for about 100 sec of powered flight and routinely

reached altitudes of 50,000 to 80,000 ft and speeds above Mach 1.

Following engine shutdown, the pilot maneuvered the vehicle through a

simulated return-from-space corridor into a pre-planned approach for a

landing on one of the lakebed runways on Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards. A

circular approach was used to lose altitude during the landing phase. On

the final approach leg, the pilot increased his rate of descent to build up

energy. At about 100-ft altitude, a "flare out" maneuver dropped air speed

to about 200 mph for the landing.

The HL-10 helped develop energy management and landing techniques used

presently with the Space Shuttle orbiters.


Dimensions: Length: 22 ft, 2 in.; Width: 15 ft, 7 in.; Height: 11 ft, 5

in.; Min. Weight: 5,265 lb; Max. Weight: 9,000 lb (with water ballast tanks


Controls: Elevons between vertical and center fins for pitch and roll

control. Split rudder on center fin for yaw and speed control. All surfaces

used in three-axis stabilizer-augmenter system.

Power: One XLR-11 four-chamber rocket engine fueled by ethyl alcohol and

liquid oxygen, producing maximum of 6,000 lb thrust; built by Chemical

Reaction Motors, Inc.

Auxiliary Power: Silver zinc batteries provided electrical power for

control system, flight instruments, radios, cockpit heat, and stability

augmentation system. To assist in pre-landing flare, four throttleable

hydrogen peroxide rockets provided up to 400 lb of thrust.

Landing Gear: Main gear was modified T-38 system retracted manually, and

lowered by nitrogen pressure. Nose gear was modified T-39 nose gear,

retracted manually and lowered with nitrogen pressure.

Pilot Ejection System: Modified F-106 system.


[Image: Dryden EAO Logo Icon]

Don Nolan

NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

Edwards, Calif. 93523

(805) 258-3447


Modified: February 2, 1994

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:), Leo

--- lvm@module.vympel.msk.ru

* Origin: - The Endless Quest - (2:5020/293)

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